Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better?
What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument?
Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric--how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic…
Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you
Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically "dangerous," inadequate, unethical, or misleading.
Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way?
Structure: How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the general to the specific or vice versa?
If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped.
Referring to the text: In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said.
Language: includes the way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning?
Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading.
Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction.
Always go through at least two drafts of you paper. Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing.
Eliminatefirst person pronoun ("I") in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write).
If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long. Probably you have too many ideas "in the air" at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning.
If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.)
Employ quotation often.One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text?
Remember to write directive (sometimes called "topic") sentences for your paragraphs. The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said.
Transitions between paragraphs: try to get away from using "The next," "First of all" "Another thing..." to connect your paragraphs. This is the "list" method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument.
On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay. To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.
There are many types of academic papers: argumentative, definition, cause & effects, etc. One of the rare types is process analysis. Usually, those who study technical sciences face this assignment. Process breakdown paper has to interpret how something happens or functions. A student must reflect the stages of a process in a sequential (chronological) order. Words and terms that may be uncommon are determined. Anyway, each essay can be written without too many obstacles.
Related article: Essay Writing Guide
Topics to Consider When You Have to Write Process Analysis Essay
Here are some samples of topic ideas you may speak about:
- how Jewish people pray
- how to cook dished made of fish
- how to handle a headache
- how to prevent catching a cold, or
- how to install and use spy applications
Now you can see that most commonly process observation essay is assigned to students who study technical disciplines, medicine, and precise sciences. However, students who specialize in studying Humanities may face this type of assignment as well.
There are many more topic ideas and free examples online.
How to Write Process Analysis Paper Correctly?
Unlike many other essays, process analysis paper looks different in everything, beginning with its structure and ending up with the purpose. Forget about the standard Intro-Body-Conclusion structure. It won't work the same way even though the names of the essay sections remain the same.
To explain how something is done or how it works, mind the following organization/format:
- In your first paragraph, introduction, write about the actual process and prove that it makes sense and is significant to discuss.
- The body paragraph(s) exist to reflect the range of instruments, equipment, or resources required to complete the chosen process.
- Outline the entire process in sequential order when it comes to the process investigation essay's conclusion.
It is time to have a closer look at each part of the process description project. In your introduction, don't write too many useless words. There is no need to include any background in the process breakdown essay. Provide information on the ingredients only. E.g., in case a recipe demands chili sauce, share this information with your audience. Skip the details and go to the point.
The next section must include a list of all tools and resources one may need to conduct the selected process. The student has to explain where his readers can find the necessary equipment or other resources to launch the process. The information in your body paragraph(s) should also involve any negative consequences or potential side effects. Talk about what may go wrong if the reader does not follow the instructions strictly, or uses wrong materials. Explain how to avoid typical failures in your process description paper.
At last, unlike in many other papers, the outline of the process analysis essay goes at the end of the text. The outline (plan) must be in a sequential order. Sometimes a reader might need to take certain steps before others, so the writer should explain the reasons concisely and clearly. Try to avoid any possible misunderstandings. Pretend that you are writing instruction or manual for the new product users, and your salary depends on how well you do that. Divide the most complicated phases into several sup-steps to make it easier for your reader to understand. Make sure to vary the usage of transitional words. Under transitional words, we mean "then", "so", "once", etc. This way, your process analysis essay won't seem repetitive and too overwhelmed. Include an overall review in your last paragraph. The author may reinforce the basic points excluding details.
Don't Sweat When There Is a Solution
When your teacher gives you a right to select your own process breakdown essay topic and ideas, do not hesitate to come up with the procedure you know perfectly. It will prevent you from searching for too much information.
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