Value education is the process by which people give moral values to others. It can be an activity that can take place in any organisation during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a condition experienced to make explicit our in order to assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behaviour for their own and others' long term well-being, and to reflect on and acquire other values and behaviour which they recognise as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others. There is a difference between literacy and educationmy lire to a pary[clarification needed]
There has been very little reliable research on the results of values education classes, but there are some encouraging preliminary results.
One definition refers to it as the process that gives young people an initiation into values, giving knowledge of the rules needed to function in this mode of relating to other people, and to seek the development in the student a grasp of certain underlying principles, together with the ability to apply these rules intelligently, and to have the settled disposition to do so Some researchers use the concept values education as an umbrella of concepts that includes moral education and citizenship education Themes that values education can address to varying degrees are character, moral development, Religious Education, Spiritual development, citizenship education, personal development, social development and cultural development.
There is a further distinction between explicit values education and implicit values education where:
- explicit values education is associated with those different pedagogies, methods or programmes that teachers or educators use in order to create learning experiences for students when it comes to value questions.
Another definition of value education is "learning about self and wisdom of life" in a self exploratory, systematic and scientific way through formal education.
Commonality in many "educations"
- Moral education
Morals as socio-legal-religious norms are supposed to help people behave responsibly. However, not all morals lead to responsible behavior. Values education can show which morals are "bad" morals and which are "good". The change in behavior comes from confusing questions about right and wrong.
American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg who specialized in research on moral education and reasoning, and was best known for his theory of stages of moral development, believed children needed to be in an environment that allowed for open and public discussion of day-to-day conflicts and problems to develop their moral reasoning ability.
- Teacher education
Cross has made a start at documenting some teacher training attempts.
Multinational school-based values education schemes
Living Values Education Programme (LVEP)
This project of worldwide proportions inspired by the new religious movement called the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University incorporates twelve values (unity, peace, happiness, hope, humility, simplicity, trust, freedom, co-operation, honesty, courage, love), and has formed the basis of thekiss whole-school ethos approach in schools such as West Kidlington Primary School, Kidlington whose head master Neil Hawkes and Values education coordinators Linda Heppenstall used the work and other programmes to help them form a values-based school. The LVEP website lists 54 countries where values education projects are undertaken.
Human Values Foundation
The Human Values Foundation was established in 1995 to make available worldwide, a comprehensive values-themed programme for children from 4 to 12 years entitled "Education in Human Values". Its fully resourced lesson plans utilise familiar teaching techniques of discussion, story-telling, quotations, group singing, activities to reinforce learning and times of quiet reflection. Following the success of "EHV", a second programme was published – Social and Emotional Education ("SEE"), primarily for ages 12 to 14+ but it has also proved constructive for older children identified as likely to benefit from help getting their lives 'back on track'. The programmes enable children and young people to explore and put into practice a wide spectrum of values with the potential to enrich their lives. Through the experiential learning, over time participants develop a well considered personal morality, all the while gaining invaluable emotional and social skills to help them lead happy, fulfilled, successful lives.
Main article: Character education
Character education is an umbrella term generally used to describe the teaching of children in a manner that will help them develop as personal and social beings. However, this definition requires research to explain what is meant by "personal and social being". Concepts that fall under this term include social and emotional learning, moral reasoning/cognitive development, life skills education, health education; violence prevention, critical thinking, ethical reasoning, and conflict resolution and mediation. Lickona (1996) mentions eleven principles of successful character education. It seems to have been applied in the UK and the United States
Science of Living
Science of Living (Jeevan Vigyan; Jeevan = Life and Vigyan = Science) is a detailed program that complements the current educational approach with spiritual and value based learning. While both mental and physical development is needed for a student's growth, Jeevan Vigyan adds a third pillar – that of emotional intelligence and morality (or values) – to education in schools and colleges. A combination of theory and practice, Jeevan Vigyan draws on the findings of various life-sciences as well as nutritional sciences. Our parasympathetic nervous system and endocrinal system are known to be the drivers of our emotions and our behavior. These biological centers can be influenced Science of Living through a system of yogic exercises, breathing exercises, medication and contemplation. Science of Living's source of inspiration is Jain Acharya Ganadhipati Shri Tulsi (1914–1997). His thoughts were further developed and expanded by Acharya Shri Mahapragya (1920–2010). Currently Muni Shri Kishan Lal Ji, under the leadership of Acharya Shri Mahashraman, is the Principal of SOL.;
Examples of values education from around the world
Taylor gives a thorough overview of values education in 26 European countries.
The Australian Government currently funds Values education in its schools, with its own publications and funding of school forums on values education at all levels of education. It also helps in becoming a better person. A conference on "Moral Education and Australian Values" was held in 2007 at Monash University.
The Indian Government currently promote Values education in its schools. The Ministry of Human Resource Development has taken strong step to introduce values among schools and teachers training centers. Also India is known as the land of introducing values. In India, under the leadership of B. Shaji Kumar, New Golden Education Trust (NGET), values Based Education has been progressing throughout the country among schools from first standard to twelve std class.
A key feature of education in Indonesia is the five principles of Pancasila.
Elementary school and middle school students from first to ninth grades will be taught the importance of life, to listen to others with different opinions, to be fair, respect their country and learn about foreign cultures.
For Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP) (the version of the Values Education in the Philippines), the signs or basic skills of functional literacy decides and acts toward common good with accountability.It means, EsP aims to cultivate and develop the ethical character of students. The EsP aims to guide the student to find the meaning of his life, his role in society to share in building the community the operative truth, freedom, justice and love. To demonstrate this, she must possess five basic skills: understanding, reflection, consultation, decision and action.
Teacher training institutions in Singapore all have curricular for learning to teach civics and moral education programmes – but students do not take these as seriously as they should due to lack of assessment. The reason has been said to be the lack of innovative teaching approaches such as the discourse pedagogy.
There is an obligatory school subject that includes the aspect of values education and Citizenship Culture and Ethics. It is taught in 7th or 8th grade of primary school. Besides this there are two elective subjects that partly deal with values education: Religions and Ethics (for 7th, 8th, and 9th grade) and Philosophy for children (Critical thinking, Ethical exploring, Me and the other; for 7th, 8th, and 9th grade). Slovenian educational system does not require special training in the field of values education for teachers that teach mentioned subjects .
Values education is a part of Swedish schools. Whereas the formal curricula is about educating students to be competent democratic citizens by practising student participation, qualitative studies have shown that in everyday school life, values education and school democracy often appeared to be reduced to traditional disciplining with high focus on rules and regulations. This in turn evokes some critiques among students. Most research on values education in Sweden is done by qualitative methods, especially ethnographic or field studies as well as focus group and interview studies. Some studies have been conducted by survey and other quantitative methods. In addition, theoretical work with roots in Dewey and Habermas has been done on deliberative democracy and deliberative conversations in schools.
In Thailand, values have traditionally been taught within the context of Buddhist religious education. Since 1982 there has been a revival of applied values as an extracurricular activity suitable for Buddhist, Moslem and Christian students alike to prepare Thai students for the effects of globalization.
Since 1988 the British government, although not recognising or calling it values education, has promoted and respected values in the guise of spiritual, moral, social and cultural development (SMSCD) leaving the initiative to individual schools to decide how values education standards should be met. It is not clear whether there are standards of values education. It should be noted that the Government and state school systems have never called it "values education". Values education courses in Britain may be implemented in the form of government supported campaigns such as Social & Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL, but are more often provided by local experts in the form of LVEP.
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Human Values – role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values
What are “human values”?
Values are “things that have an intrinsic worth in usefulness or importance to the possessor,” or “principles, standards, or qualities considered worthwhile or desirable.”
- Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual.
- Human values are the virtues that guide us to take into account the human element when one interacts with other human beings. They are the many positive dispositions that create bonds of humanity between people and thus have value for all of us as human beings. They are our strong positive feelings for the human essence of the other.
- It’s both what we expect others to do to us and what we aim to give to other human beings (“Do unto the other what you wish for yourself”). These human values have the effect of bonding, comforting, reassuring and procuring serenity.
- Human values are the foundation for any viable life within society: they build space for a drive, a movement towards one another, which leads to peace.
- Human values thus defined are universal: they are shared by all human beings, whatever their religion, their nationality, their culture, their personal history. By nature, they induce consideration for others.
Human values are, for example:
- brotherhood, friendship, empathy, compassion, love.
- openness, listening, welcoming, acceptance, recognition, appreciation;
- honesty, fairness, loyalty, sharing, solidarity;
- civility, respect, consideration;
- The function of most of these basic values is to make it possible for every human to realize or maintain the very highest or most basic universal core values of life, love and happiness.
- Respect is one of the most important human value for establishing relations of peace – and yet it remains elusive: its understanding varies according to age (child, teen,adult), to one’s education and surrounding culture. It is better understood when combined with other values: a disposition that is deeper than civility, very close to consideration, and approaching appreciation. Indeed, to respect someone, one must be able to appreciate some of his/her human qualities, even if one does not appreciate his/her opinions or past behaviour.
- A ‘value system’ is an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct along a continuum of importance. Thus the importance of different values co-varies with the importance of others in the value system. For e.g. one may value ‘honesty’ over ‘success’.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic value
- An intrinsic value is a value that one has of itself, independently of other things, including its context. For example, according to a fundamental form of consequentialism, whether an action is morally right or wrong has exclusively to do with whether its consequences are intrinsically better than those of any other action one can perform under the circumstances.
- An intrinsic value is something that is good in and of itself, The thing that has true intrinsic value is happiness or pleasure. There are no physical things that have intrinsic value.
- An extrinsic (or relational) value is a property that depends on a thing’s relationship with other things. Extrinsic value is the value, which depends on how much it generates intrinsic value.
- It is something that is good because it leads to something else that is good, It is a means to an end, ie money has extrinsic value because it can be used to buy something that you want like a new pair of shoes, The new shoes would have extrinsic value because they are comfortable and stylish and they make you feel happy.
- The reason that things have extrinsic value is because they themselves lead to happiness or pleasure or they lead to a series of other things that eventually lead to happiness.
- Pleasure (Intrinsic Value) is the ultimate end to which all things of extrinsic value are the means.
What is the difference between human values, ethical values and moral values?
- Values that are said to be “ethical” are those that command respectful behavior toward others, that is, towards other human beings, without harming them. These can be applied to animal and plant life as well.
- “Moral” values are in fact the same, but today, “moralising” rhetoric is not well received. For this reason, some people refer to “ethical values”. However, most people seem more interested yet in “human values”. These are seen as much more positive, perhaps because we feel directly concerned: we ourselves have a strong desire to have others be “human” to us.
- These human, ethical and moral values are universal values, felt deep down inside each of us (our consciousness). They are also expressed formally in laws, constitutions and various international texts (Declarations, Conventions, etc..) asserting Human Rights. The recognition of these universal values by many countries in the world is the first step toward their implementation, calling for everyone to respect them. These texts aim in the first place at guaranteeing the integrity (both physical and psychological) of every human being, precisely because he/she is human: each person holds the right not to be abused, whatever form those abuses may take. But the ultimate goal is to promote a positive and concrete practice (attitudes, behaviours and acts) establishing those human universal values as the basis of human relationships, in a spirit of reciprocity and mutual respect of those values.
- Human values inspire us to better put into practice our moral values, especially in conflict situations, when we tend to put them aside and become confrontational.
Role of family and society in inculcating values:
- The family and society is important in developing the moral values of child. There is a close contact between the parents and children, which determine the personality of child. Family is the foundation on which values are built.
- Moral values like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice are instilled in children’s thoughts, feelings and actions and they function as ideals and standards that govern their actions in their life. The value system practised in the family becomes automatic to the young family members if they are taught moral values systematically.
- The family, shapes the child’s attitude towards people and society, and helps in mental growth in the child and supports his ambitions and values. Blissful and cheerful atmosphere in the family will develop the love, affection, tolerance, and generosity. A child learns his behavior by modelling what he sees around him.
- Family plays a major role in helping a child socialize and has great influence and bearing on the progress of the child. Joint family system, the presence of elders in the family plays the effective role in social and moral development of the children. It will also help young generation of the family to imbibe human values and eradicate their negative mental tendencies when they are among elders.
- Children identify themselves with their parents, other family elders and adopt them as their personal models for emulation and imitation. The behavioural problems are set correct only by the involvement of family in the child’s life as they spend most of their time in adolescence with the parents.
- Family is the first social organisation that provides the immediate proximity from which the kid can learn his behavior.
- Social standards and customs defined by a family provide the emotional and physical basis for a child. Values developed by a family are the foundation for how children learn, grow and function in the world. These beliefs, transmits the way of life a child lives and changes into an individual in a society. These values and morals guides the individual every time in his actions. Children turn out to be a good person because of the value taught and given by his family members Ideas passed down from generation to generation make up a family values. Customs and Traditions followed and taught by the family leads a disciplined and organized life.
- Families values helps the child to stand strong on his views despite others efforts to break through with opposing beliefs. A child has a strong sense of what is right and wrong and are less likely to become victims of deviant influences.
Role of educational institutions in inculcating values:
- In school, children are members of a small society that exerts a tremendous influence on their moral development. Teachers serve as role model to students in school; they play a major role in inculcating their ethical behavior.
- Peers at school diffuse boldness about cheating, lying, stealing, and consideration for others. Though there are rules and regulations, the educational institutions infuse the value education to the children in an informal way. They play a major role in developing ethical behaviour in children. General Steps are:
- Accountability: The children should be encouraged to be accountable for their own actions and should learn to respect and treat others kindly.
- Role model: The teachers are the first role model to the children outside their family. When the children see the model showing concern for others, motivating them for their good deeds and cooperating and helpful with their academic issues, the children learn them by observing and imitate it with fellow peers.
- Helping: The children are taught basic morals and values in school. They should be taught by emphasizing the idea through many activities, stories and tales, which will encourage them to engage in more helping behaviors.
- Appreciation: The teacher should appreciate the children for developing pro-social behaviour, especially for any specific action they have done to help others.