Favela Bairro Project Gcse Geography Coursework

Topic 1: Population Dynamics

Key Vocabulary:

Natural Increase

Natural Decrease

Life Expectancy

Birth Rate

Death rate

Infant Mortality

People per doctor

Now add in a list of words of your own and add in the definitions.

POPULATION PYRAMIDS MEDC VS LEDC

MEDC – Germany.

Draw a typical MEDC population pyramid

Characteristics:

  • low birth rate

  • long life expectancy

  • high average age

  • high proportion of elderly

  • large economically active sector

  • small young dependent sector,

  • increasing elderly dependent sector.

 (Annotate these characteristics onto your pyramid)

LEDC – Malawi.

In the space below draw a typical LEDC pyramid.

Characteristics:

  • High birth rate

  • high infant mortality

  • lower life expectancy

  • low average age

  • small proportion of elderly

  • high young dependent sector (economically dependent)

 (Annotate these characteristics onto your pyramid)

In the space below draw the four different stages of a country’s development. Use page 166 of GIF to help you. Next, describe how the population pyramid changes over time. Make reference to the birth rate, economically active/dependent sectors, etc.

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

Print off the Demographic Transition Model – annotate with the different shapes of population pyramid and add in characteristics of each stage (which explain why there are changes to birth and death rates).

WORLD POPULATION GROWTH

Print off the worksheet POPULATION GROWTH. Complete the natural increase or natural decrease column. Plot the locations of natural increase in one colour and natural decrease in another. Describe and explain the pattern you see.

POPULATION INCREASE IN LEDC AND MEDC

Effects of population increase in a LEDC – China.

China’s population issue:

  • China’s population is the largest in the world.

  • China is currently finding it difficult to provide food, water, jobs and facilities for all its people.

  • In 1970s and 1980s it was seen as a sign of virility if you had lots of children. The Chinese Government also believed that lots of children was a sign of a country’s wealth.

  • The population is predicted to double between 1980 and 2080 if there is no population control policy.

How did the Chinese government enforce the policy?

Write down five methods that it used.

The effects of China’s one child policy:

Disadvantages:

  • High rates of infanticide and abandonment of girl babies as family name is not continued.

  • As a result the number of boys outnumber the girls 2 to 1.

  • Women forced to have an abortion is they become pregnant a second time.

  • Families with two children are harassed, fined and have to pay to send their children to school and hospitals.

  • Forced sterilisation of women.

  • Only child in family is very spoilt leading to future problems.

Advantages:

  • Population is now only rising slowly and as a result should be in a position to feed its population in the future.

Watch the following two videos

and

Effects of population increase in a MEDC – Germany.

Germany’s population issue:

  • Germany’s population is now in decline as death rate is higher that birth rate.

  • As a result it has a growing economically dependent sector and a shrinking economically active sector.

  • Germany now needs to boost its economically active sector by attracting Gastarbeiters (guest workers).

Advantages:

  • Gastarbeiters work for lower wages.

  • They often are prepared to do the jobs that local people do not want to do e.g. dirty/physically demanding jobs.

  • They pay tax which is reinvested into the country.

Disadvantages:

  • Gastarbeiters can often only afford to live in poor quality housing.

  • Many are victims of of racism/verbal and physical abuse.

  • German people are concerned that they take jobs away from the local people.

  • Gastarbeiters often have language difficulties and therefore cannot access schools or health care easily.

AGEING POPULATIONS

What is the issue?

The European Union in 1996 predicted that:

  • There will be an extra 37 million people aged 60 and over;

  • The number of pensioners will rise to 111 million.

  • The working population (aged 20-59) will shrink by 13 million

  • Over 60s will outnumber the under 20s.

  • There will be three times as many over 80s as there are now.

  • There will be 9 million fewer children and children and teenagers.

Why has this happened?

Sort these statements out into two headings Falling birth rate and Falling death rate.

  • A reduction in the number of children born to each woman.

  • Populations are urbanised – meaning that there was an economic advantage for most people having large families.

  • Life expectancy has lengthened.

  • A drop in infant mortality

  • Advances in the treatment of cardiovascular (heart) disease

  • Advances in the treatment of canver

  • Changes in lifestyle – better diets, reduced smoking, more regular exercise and more frequent medical checks.

  • A higher life expectancy for women than men

  • Can you think of any others?

The problems of an increasing population in the UK?

  • more money spent on health care for the elderly
  • increasing burden on doctors
  • more long-term illnesses
  • increasing dependence on a shrinking proportion of economically active people (by 2050, 3 people working to 2 people economically dependent)
  • less money for younger people (education & leisure)
  • changing fashion tastes
  • many elderly live alone
  • need different types of housing (warden assisted)
  • can’t afford health care – forced to sell homes
  • those in rural areas face accessibility issues
  • increasing burden on taxation for pensions
  • entertainment for the elderly (ballroom dancing, line dancing, bingo)
  • many elderly have insufficient pensions.

The bigger problems are that:

  • many young people will no longer have the option of a government pension when they get to retirement-age
  • retirement age will have to rise (now expected to be 70 years old) in order to pay for pensions
  • People will have to provide for themselves through a private pension
  • many people have not started saving yet!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/537.flv

POPULATION IN KENYA

    • Background:

      Matoui village is in Kyuso, East Kenya.

      Native people are subsistence farmers. They grow grain and vegetables and keep cattle and goats.

      Jobs:

      • Children as young as 3 years old will work on the farms.

      • Most children go to school, but will work when they get home.

      • Boys will often look after herds; girls will help their mothers carry water and get fuelwood they need.

      • Offspring will have to look after the family farm and the adults will have to rely on their children for support.

      What is the issue?

      • There is great pressure to have large families (for working on farms; religion; a societal sign of virility, and to support their parents when they get older);

      • Young men (at above 16 years old) will leave the villages to serve in the army or work in the city (because there are better prospects of getting a well paid job).

      • These young men are expected to send money back to the village to help support their parents (and pay for a girls’ dowry).

      What can be done about this issue?

      Write down four things that can be done to solve this issue.

MIGRATION, GASTARBIETER

Who are they?

Guest workers who come from countries around Germany, e.g. from Turkey, Former Yugoslavia, Spain and Portugal.

What jobs do they do and why?

  • Low skilled manual jobs

  • Only available option as they are desperate to get money as the jobs they could do at home are very poorly paid.

  • Dirty jobs

  • Long unsociable hours

  • As Germany became increasingly wealthy post WWII, it became attractive to migrant workers.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Migrants develop new skills to take home country – some are highly skilled

Labour shortage is solved

They are prepared to do worst jobs for low wage

Cultural advances

Pressure on Germany’s resources

Source country loses its working age population

Increasing percentage of elderly population in source country

Money goes back to home country – little stays in host country.

What problems do the gastarbieter face?

Write down what problems they face in at least one paragraph. (Think about language, housing, religion and their health).

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Topic 2: Resources

RESOURCES:

Define the following words:

1. Fossil fuels

2. Renewable

3. Recycle

4. Stewardship

5. Non-renewable

6. Finite

7. Natural resource

8. Geothermal energy

9. Hydroelectricity

10. Conservation

Please note that the focus of the course is on renewable energy.

EXAMPLE OF RENEWABLE ENERGYADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES
HydroelectricityRenewable. Cheap to run. Limited pollution. Ideal for locations with lots of rainfall.Produced mainly in highland areas. Expensive to build. Damage habitats. Unsightly pylons to carry electricity. Silt could be deposited in the dam. Not a constant supply of electricity
GeothermalRenewable. Constant supply. Pollution free – only produced water vapour. Cheap. Source of opportunity for jobs.Limited to volcanic areas (Cornwall has an operational geothermal plant). Expensive. Emissions include sulphuric gases.
WindRenewable. Pollution-free. Cheap to run (costs 1.8p per kWh). Source of opportunity for local jobs.Limited to west of UK and highland areas. Often ideal places are in AONBs and/or sensitive areas. Expensive to set up. Lots of investment. Needs planning approval. Wind doesn’t blow all the time. Visual pollution – see local Dorset examples. Alleged noise pollution. May kill birds, NIMBY attitude of locals who want clean energy but not in their back yard.
SolarPollution free. Safe. Limitless supply. Ideal for sunny areas.Expensive. Sunlight is not constant in UK. Not possible in winter, especially when demand is highest. Not appropriate for the UK.

Wave power, hyrdoelectricity and wind farms

 (click link above)

The Technological Fix:

Watch the video below and make notes on how the Honda FCX Clarity is an example of a technological fix.

http://www.topgear.com/uk/videos/honda-clarity

GENETIC MODIFICATION

What are they?

GM crops are seen were seen as a solution to food shortages in developing countries and a means or reducing food bills in developed countries.

‘GM involves taking genes from one species and inserting them into another to give it new qualities, such as improved resistance to pests, heat or cold.’

THE DEBATE:

Advantages:

  • Disease, drought and pest resistant products;

  • Increase in food production;

  • Faster growing crops could produce two yields a year;

  • Could allow other crops (vegetables) to be grown;

  • Many of the more well-off farmers who can afford the seeds, fertiliser and tractors needed, have become richer.

  • Enables a mixed diet – as a result of a wider variety of crops being grown;

  • Can improve animal breeds;

Disadvantages:

  • Risk that scientists are playing ‘God’ and that we should not interfere;

  • Are GM crops totally safe?;

  • Risk that genes engineered in plants and animals will be transferred to species in the wild, affecting the ecosystem;

  • Need a more reliable water supply – GM crops are more vulnerable to drought and to waterlogging;

  • GM crops might not be sustainable.

  • GM crops are more expensive, so the final produce might be more expensive.

  • Mechanisation has increased rural unemployment and migration to the tows.

Remember to present a balanced argument in your exam answer.

Alternatively, watch the video below, and make notes on How Genetic Modifcation is solving the problem of resource shortages

Malthus or Boserup?

What did Malthus predict?

Malthus predicted that food supply would increase arithmetically and population would increase exponentially. Therefore he predicted that the world’s population would reach Doomsday at some point in the 19th Century. This would lead to war, poverty and famine.

Did this happen?

Many people have stated that the world’s population has reached and passed the point of Doomsday. What evidence is there that we have reached Doomsday? e.g. Population increase, shortages of food and water, resource shortages, overshoot

However, some people argue that Doomsday hasn’t actually happened yet… rate of resource discovery, technological advancements.

Boserup.

Danish economist Ester Boserup put forward an idea that Doomsday would never happen as necessity is the mother of all invention. In other words technologuy would always find a way to provide us with new resources.

What do you think?

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Living Space – this is no longer an option within the GCSE course

MOVING BACK TO THE CITY IN MEDCS

Two distinct ‘groups’ of people are returning back to the city: a) 25-35 year old young and upwardly mobile; b) 60+ recently retired.

Watch the video above. Record the reasons why the family are returning back into the city.

Reasons for moving back to the city:

Young:

  • Good nightlife

  • Around similarly aged people
  • close to work
  • lots of high quality, newly furnished flats
  • close to high  quality shopping

60+ Retired:

  • Close to friends/family
  • Flats/houses are low maintenance
  • Accommodation is semi-communal (i.e. shared)

Also for both groups:

  • Lots of places to eat out
  • good public transport infrastructure
  • culture and leisure facilities close by

Now, make a list of the disadvantages for both groups of people.

MIGRATION TO SPAIN:

Reasons to migrate to Spain:

  • Warmer climate (fewer rainy days, longer sunshine hours)

  • Modern health service
  • Excellent transport links
  • Lower house prices
  • Lower heating costs
  • Pensions can be transferred
  • Cheap to fly home
  • Large ‘ex-pat’ community

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TOPICS 3 and 5: Globalisation & The Changing UK Economy

Write down the meaning of these key words:

Primary Employment

Secondary Employment

Tertiary employment

Quaternary employment

deindustrialisation

New economy

Clarke-Fisher Model

Informal economy

Formal economy

Urban heat island

Rural diversification
Urban regeneration

Brownfield site

Greenfield site

Old Economy

New Economy

THE CLARKE-FISHER MODEL

Describe how employment changes over time according to the Clarke-Fisher Model.

TRADITIONAL INDUSTRY

Look at this clip http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/6939.flv of the textiles industry in Scotland. Write down why it located there.

Now, write down why you think many manufacturing industries closed down in the UK.

NEWLY INDUSTRIALISING COUNTRIES

Open up Formal informal employment card sort worksheet. Sort out the statements and complete them into a table to show the characterisitcs of the formal and informal economy. Also, give examples of each type of job

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

What is meant by the urban  heat island effect?

This is where temperatures in cities are much higher (upto 4 degrees C)than the surrounding countryside due to heat released from buildings, factories and from air pollution.

Describe the changes in temperature as you move across the city.

The reasons for the changes are:

  • Buildings store heat

  • Car fumes encourage heat to be stored
  • Consumption of fossil fuels (electricity)
  • heating systems
  • people add to all the heat

OLD AND NEW ECONOMY

Complete the following worksheet to describe the characteristics of the OLD economy and NEW economy.

Print out this  Hexagons worksheet to describe the characteristics of the old and new economy

Also, you will need to print out this worksheet on New Economies and Dot coms.

REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT DIFFERENCES

Re-read your section on Canary Wharf and Dinnington, Yorkshire. Complete this Dinnington v Canary Wharf table to explain why there are regional differences in employment

Open up this presentation about the The Spiral of Decline and work out the sequence of why areas go into decline and then work out What’s left.

INNER CITY RENEWAL – BIRMINGHAM

Why was the Bull Ring developed?

  • It was essentially seen as the way forward – to allow people to do all of their shopping in one site.

  • Busy streets, long queues for the bus and traffic jams in the city centre all made shopping in Birmingham a unhappy experience.

  • The thought of people being able to do their shopping in a new shopping centre.

What was the reality?

  • The development was not successful.

  • Planners didn’t predict that people would want independence when they shop and that they ultimately decided where and when they wanted to spend their money.

  • Also, increasing use of private transport exacerbated the problems.

  • The development of Out of Town (OOT) retail sites sparked the decline of the traditional city centre. Problems of the CBD really made people think about shopping in the city centre and go to these OOT sites instead.

  • Shopping has become a leisure industry. Many out of town sites now are designed to be a pleasure – easy parking, a clean environment, food, and facilities for the young ones.

  • Once the Bull Ring had started to decline, it became plagued with graffiti, crime (and other deviant behaviour), boarded-up shops and grimy underpasses.

What else has happened in Birmingham?

  • Brindleyplace, just to the west of Birmingham city centre has undergone a £250 million redevelopment covering part of its old canals.

  • It encompasses offices, shops and luxury flats.

  • There is much more environmental quality with this development – including lots of public open space.

  • Although many new jobs have been created, fewer than half have gone to Birmingham residents. Many jobs are low paid and short-term in the retail and tourism sectors, unlike many of the highly paid and highly skilled that the city has lost in recent years.

  • It has provided no affordable housing for people in the inner city – and in fact prices have increased because it has become a highly desirable area. It has made it harder for people to find jobs and affordable housing.

FORT DUNLOP

How can we use brownfield sites?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/1508.flv

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/1509.flv

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/1510.flv

Look at this website to create a case-study of how Fort Dunlop was regenerated. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Dunlop What employment opportunities are there now at Fort Dunlop?

At it’s height, 1200 people worked at Fort Dunlop, Birmingham, a tyre-storage facilty on the outskirts of Birmingham. It closed in 1980s when the storage facility moved overseas. In 2002, Fort Dunlop recieved planning permission to build a new 24 hour sustainable community. It opened in 2006 and included a 100-bed hotel, a business park with office and retail spaces and well as places to eat and drink.

Think about how we can use Brownfield sites. Complete this worksheet on REGENERATION OPTIONS FOR BROWNFIELD SITES

RURAL DIVERSIFICATION

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/4812.flv Click on the link to open the classclip of diversification in agriculture. Write down a) how the farm has diversified and b) why they diversified.

GREEN EMPLOYMENT

Green employment consists of attempts to improve the air quality, to recycle and to reduce waste, to promote conservation, green tourism and to improve the environment.

Look at the image below. List as many types of’green employment as possible.

Look at this worksheet to explain an alternative example of green employment in Brazil. GREEN EMPLOYMENT Recycling

Complete these worksheets on how THE DIGITAL ECONOMYwill affect working practices and ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEW WORKING PATTERNS

NIKE – A TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION

What is a TNC?

A TNC is a large company that operates in more than one country.

How are they structured?

TNCs often have their headquarters in a MEDC (Nike’s is in Oregon, USA) and have a number of factories and outlets around the world. They use cheaper labour in LEDCs and NICs (newly industrialising countries) especially in SE Asia.

Transnational Corporations – Just Do It!

Today Nike is the largest seller of sports footwear, clothing and accessories in the world. It operates in 140 countries. A lot of clothing is made in the USA, but nearly all of its trainers are made elsewhere by several hundred thousand workers in SE Asia.

NIKE HEADQUARTERS, USA  —> Design products

MANUFACTURING, LEDCS & NICS, such as Vietnam, Thailand, China, Indonesia, South Korea, Taiwan and Mexico.

Why ‘Do it’ all over the world?

  • Cheap labour

  • New markets in LEDCs and Nics

  • Cheaper materials

  • Saves cost! One design all over the world.

  • Company can dominate global markets.

Benefits and problems of TNCs can bring to LEDCs:

  • they can bring new investment into a country’s economy
  • they provide jobs, often at higher levels than the local average
  • they frequently import their own imputs, rather than source locally
  • they can damage the local environment
  • they provide management skills which might be lacking
  • their profits are often exported, draining wealth from the local economy
  • they usually provide low skilled jobs in LEDCs (MEDCs retain highly skilled ones
  • They provide research and dvelopment that can assist local development
  • TNCs are too mobile and can leave as soon as they arrive
  • they are powerful and can interfere in political processes
  • their international links can gain access to world markets
  • they weaken workers rights by looking for countries with cheaper labour

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Topic 7: Development Dilemmas

Key Vocabulary:

Development

Development Indicator

Population Growth

Trade

Rostow Model

GATT

WTO

IMF

Interdependency

Urban Core

Rural Periphery

Top down development

Bottom up development

Outsourcing

Upward spiral

Multiplier effect

Sustainable development

Unsustainable development

Appropriate technology

Rostow modernisation theory

Frank’s dependency Theory

ROSTOW MODERNISATION THEORY

Rostow believed that countries will pass through five stages of development

  1. Traditional Society – most people work in agriculture, but produce little surplus (extra food that they could sell). This is a subsistence economy

  2. Preconditions for take-off – there’s a shift from farming to manufacturing. Trade increases profits which are invested into new industries and infrastructure. Agriculture produces cash crops for sale
  3. Take off – growth is rapid. Investment and technology creates new manufacturing industries. Take-off requires investment from profits earned from overseas trade.
  4. Drive to maturity – a period of growth. Technology is used throughout the economy. Industries produce consumer goods.
  5. Age of mass consumption – a period of comfort. Consumers enjoy a wide range of goods. Societies choose how to spend wealth, either on military strength, on education and welfare, or on luxuries for the wealthy.

Open this document STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT and sort into the correct order.

FRANK’S DEPENDENCY THEORY

Frank believed that development was about two types of global region – core and periphery. The core represents the developed, powerful nations of the world (i.e. North America, Europe and Australasia) and the peripher consists of the other areas, which produce raw materials to sell to the core. The periphery therefore depends on the core for its market. He suggests that low-value raw materials are traded between the periphery and core, and the core processes these into higher value products and becomes wealthy.

Core, Periphery and Multiplier effect:

Core: an area which has a high GNP or GNI, and has lots of industry and lots of employment opportunities. It includes the major city and industrial areas

Periphery: an area which has a low GNP or GNI and has little industry, declining agriculture and it may have a declining population

Multiplier effect: how many times money circulates through a country’s economy.

Money invested in an industry helps to create jobs directly in the industry, but it also creates jobs indirectly elsewhere in the economy. New industrial development, for example, requires construction workers who themselves require housing, and services such as schools and shops. An increased demand for food will benefit local farmers who may increase their spending on fertiliser.

Growth poles: points or places where industry develops as a result human or physical factors.

Now, sort these statements into an order to show the sequence of the multiplier effect:

  • demand for more workers
  • need houses water and services
  • people move there
  • growth of industry
  • needs workforce
  • investment
  • need foof
  • workers need housing
  • growth continues and settlements/economy expand

Urban Core of India:

These areas tend to have the largest GDP/GNP and include:

  • services such as banking, IT, finance, insurance and call centres

  • highly educated people with the best universities, English speaking IT graduates
  • large Western Companies who outsource their services in the Urban core of Maharastra
  • Manufacturing – booming industries include textiles, food processing, steel, engineering, cement manufacturing
  • entertainment – e.g. the largest film industry (Bollywood)
  • Leisure and business services e.g. hotels, restaurants.

RURAL PERIPHERY

The rural periphery is the ‘edge’. It typically consists of rural areas which are mostly agricultural based.

In India, for example, most are farmers and only rent their land, so can only afford small plots to rent. In Bihar, in NE India literacy rates are low – and lower amongst women, and just over half have access to electricity. Many are subsistence farmers, where most of the work is done by hand and by using oxen or buffalo. They don’t grow a surplus so can re-invest in their machinery, so are trapped in a cycle of poverty.

Rural families are large, and tend to have more children (average fertility rate is 4.4) so work on the land, women marry early so have lots of children, and women are poorer than men. School attendance is poor.

Look at this presentation on The Spiral of Decline and draw links between the statements to show the cycle of poverty.

THE THREE GORGES DAM PROJECT, CHINA

What was the main aim of the Three Gorges Dam?

A number of highly populated settlements along the Yangtze River had been at a high risk of regular flooding for a number of years. The settlements has been protected by a 180km long 12-16m high levee which protected 50,000km2 of fertile land and several million people. The dam was built in response to concerns that should the levee break there would be heavy economic loss and a large number of deaths. Many people felt that the dam should not have been built.

THE OVERALL AIM WAS TO REDUCE THE FLOOD RISK.

Benefits / Advantages of the TGP scheme:

  • An ability to store water from a flood event at a one-in-100 year flood event magnitude;

  • The summer floodwater can be stored so that places downstream would be safe;

  • The summer flood water could be released gradually during the dry winter months ensuring food production throughout the year;

  • The dam was multi-purpose – aimed at producing hydroelectric (renewable energy) and improving river navigation.

  • There will be two power stations which will help China to develop industries and improve its people’s standard of living.

  • By reducing the need for coal this should mean less air pollution and less risk to people’s health;

  • Tourism should benefit as cruise ships will be able to sail at all times;

  • Many new settlements will have better housing (with electricity, running water and sewerage), transport links and services;

  • The dam should increase the length of the growing seasons; the dam should enable the irrigation of the ground to increase food production.

Disadvantages:

  • The project means the relocation of 1.3 million people (4 cities, 8 towns and 356 villages will be drowned).

  • People have no choice but to resettle.

  • Compensation is often not enough to resettle to modern, more expensive houses.

  • The best sites for new settlements have been flooded

  • The lake will flood many temples and sacred sites, and thousands of small factories along the river.

  • The dam will trap the valuable sediment which should be used on the land for farming;

  • Possibility the dam could break under the weight of the water, or earthquakes;

  • Endangered species may become extinct

  • The cost of the budget is far in excess of the original budget.

  • The flow of water is reduced downstream and it will affect the dynamics of the river downstream.

Unsustainable projects, like this one, harm the environment, negatively affect people and their quality of life and have negative impacts on the economy.

Use the information above to complete this case-study: ThreeGorgesDam Case Study

BOTTOM UP SCHEMES:

There are numerous examples of alternative approaches to sustainable development in LEDCs. These include: Biogas plants in rural India, The Goat for It project in Tanzania and Bangladesh, the hand-dug wells in Ghana, the Microhydro scheme in Peru, or the ASTRA project in Bangalore.

Each is an example of appropriate technology as it uses a renewable resource and uses simple technology. Each has common aspects which makes it an excellent example of sustainable development:

  • It improves the quality of the environment (or at least does not harm it)

  • It does not involve high investment (it does not involve huge sums of borrowing from world /international banks)
  • The money is collected by charity
  • People’s quality of life is improved
  • it raises the role of women in society
  • children can go to school (instead of collect water/fuelwood)
  • women can sell local crafts and earn income
  • it involves local people in decision-making
  • the least wealthy are involved and have their quality of life improved
  • it improves tourism
  • teachers wish to stay in the villages
  • the diet of locals has been improved through better quality food (which looks better)
  • the waste from the biogas plants can be used as fertilizer
  • the water from the wells can be used to irrigate crops

Now, complete the attached table to compare the top down scheme versus the bottom up scheme TOP DOWN OR BOTTOM UP

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Topic 7: Challenges of an urban world.

Key vocabulary

Ecological footprint

Source

Sink

Bioproductive area

Carbon footprint

BEDZED

Direct variable charging

Polluters pays principle

Farmers markets

Food miles

Ethical shopping

Rural-urban migration

Push factor

Pull factor

Favela

Informal squatter settlement

Informal employment

Rapid urban growth

Re-urbanisation

counter-urbanisation

THE RUSH FOR TOWNS AND CITIES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD 

Look at the Brandt report (do a search using a search engine) to explain why there is a rush to the cities in LEDCs.

Open up this image to show the push and pull factors of rural-to-urban migration. Write them down as economic, social and environmental

FAVELA BAIRRO PROJECT, RIO DE JANIERO

Why has Rio grown so fast?

  • Employment opportunities in the city itself

  • Food & water supply problems in rural areas

  • Services such as schools and hospitals are in Rio

  • Rapidly expanding industry

  • Strong tourist industry

What problems has this created?

Housing:

  • 1/2 million homeless & 1 million in favelas and another 1 million in poor quality houses

  • lacks basic services (running water, sewage or electric)

  • many don’t actually own the land they live on

  • poorly built houses which are made from wood or other reclaimed/recycled materials

  • houses built on highly unstable hillsides

  • people need to carry everything they need uphill

  • risk of floods which can cause mudslides

  • high prevalence of disease within polluted water

Crime:

  • Organised crime

  • Drug trafficking

Traffic:

  • Severe congestion

  • Pollution

  • Noise

Pollution:

  • Industrial haze

  • Traffic fumes

  • Huge amounts of waste

  • Rubbish in favelas is likely to be uncollected

  • Polluted water supplies

  • sewage in open drains

  • outbreaks of cholera etc…

What exactly did the Favela Bairro project do?

City authorities spent £200 million (equivalent) on improving favelas by:

  • Replacing wooden buildings with bigger brick ones.
  • Removing houses on dangerously steep slopes
  • Widening streets so emergency services and dustcarts can get access
  • Laying pavements
  • Adding water pipes and electricity.
  • Use labour from the favelas to develop their skills and reduce costs (self help!).

FOR EACH OF THE THINGS THE FAVELA BAIRRO PROJECT DID IN RIO, MATCH THEM UP TO A NUMBER OF PROBLEMS WITHIN THE CITY – EXPLAIN WHY THEY DID IT.

IMPROVING LIFE FOR THE POOR 

Take a look at the image below.

Describe how governments might improve living conditions.

Decide the best way in which the living conditions within the favelas may be improved. You must decide on the scheme (outlined above) and outline:

ü  what the scheme will do

ü  how the scheme will work (explain fully)

ü  the advantages and disadvantages of your scheme

ü  the problems with the other scheme. (9 marks)

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS

There are 12 billion hectares of bioproductive land on Earth and there are approximately 6 billion people living on the planet. Using the idea that if the land was shared out evenly between the world’s population, each person should have 2 hectares of land from which they should be able to live on (i.e. 2 hectares of land to grow all the food and obtain all the natural resources that they need). This 2 hectares, in theory, should be our ecological footprint.

Design a poster to illustrate the factors that make up our ecological footprint. Think about food, transport, housing, consumer goods, infrastructure, public and private services. Then, divide your list into those that put pressure on areas close to the consuming city and those far away. Finally, design a mind map to show why different cities have different footprints.

BEDZED – BEDDINGTON ZERO ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Watch the video below on BedZED.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/6338.flv

Write down how this development reduces ecological footprints.

BedZED Characteristics:

  • buildings store heat

  • buildings made from natural or recycled materials
  • passive solar gain, to maximise sun’s energy
  • backing offices onto homes and facing north, with reduced solar gain to reduce need for air conditioning
  • insulation
  • heat from cooking used as space heating
  • low energy appliances and lighting
  • energy tracking meters
  • combined heat and power plant
  • roof gardens to collect rainwater
  • green transport plan
  • car sharing (ZEDcars) and free electric charging points.

MANAGING ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS – SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SCHEMES

London Congestion Charge worksheet – read this and make comments on the reasons why this was introduced.

Methods to make transport more sustainable:

Development of cycling, paths – renting systems etc

Car sharing schemes

Local ‘wiggly’ bus schemes

Community buses

Trams/ urban rail systems

Walking bus school transport

Encouragement of electric cars

Hydrogen fuel cell technology

Boris Bikes – See video below – and take a look at this website: http://bikes.oobrien.com/london/

FARMERS MARKETS:

There are many examples locally of farmers markets:

Advantages:

Good quality food, often organic and seasonal

Low food miles

Less packaging

Supports local economy

Meet the producer

Disadvantages:

Often expensive

Not close to everyone

Often only weekly or monthly

Unable to provide all we need

Local is not always what is seems, particularly for the larger cities.

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Urban Problems in LEDCs

Rapid urbanisation in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) is causing many problems. Many new migrants to cities in LEDCs cannot afford housing. They are forced to build temporary accommodation in spontaneous settlements. These settlements are commonly known as 'shanty towns'. They are also called favelas (Brazil) or bustees (India). Three main features of a shanty town are:

  1. Houses are made from scrap materials such as wood and metal sheeting
  2. Often housing is do not have services such as sanitation, water or electricity.
  3. The settlements are usually very overcrowded.

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is an example of a city with a large area of shanty settlements or favelas.

Case Study - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rio de Janeiro is a city located on Brazil's south-east coast. It is one of Brazil's largest settlements with a population of approximately 11.7 million people. The population of Rio de Janeiro has grown for a number of reasons. Natural Increase is one reason for its growth (this is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate). The population has also grown as the result of urbanisation. The has been caused by rural to urban migration. Millions of people have migrated from Brazil's rural areas to Rio de Janeiro. 65% of urban growth is a result of migration. This is caused by a variety of push and pull factors.

The rapid growth of Rio de Janeiro's population has led to a severe shortage of housing. Millions of people have been forced to construct their own homes from scrap materials such as wood, corrugated iron and metals. These areas of temporary accommodation are known as favelas in Brazil. The conditions associated with favelas are very poor. Often families have to share one tap, there is no sewerage provision, disease is common and many people are unemployed.

Favelas are located on the edge of most major Brazilian cities. They are located here for a number of reasons. Firstly, this is the only available land to build on within the city limits. Secondly, industry is located on the edge of the cities. Many people need jobs therefore they locate close to factories. Some of these settlements may be 40 or 50 km from the city centre (on the edge of the city), along main roads and up very steep hillsides.

Favela Case Study - Rocinha

Rocinha is the largest favela in Brazil. It is located in the southern zone of the city. It is built on a steep hillside overlooking the city, just one kilometer from the beach. It is home to between 60,000 to 150,000 people (though this could be more).
Image of Rocinha  


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Self-help schemes - Rocinha, Bairro Project

The authorities in Rio de Janeiro have taken a number of steps to reduce problems in favelas. They have set up self-help schemes. This is when the local authority provide local residents with the materials needs to construct permanent accommodation. This includes breeze blocks and cement. The local residents provide the labour. The money saved can be spent on providing basic amenities such as electricity and water.

Today, almost all the houses in Rocinha are made from concrete and brick. Some buildings are three and four stories tall and almost all houses have basic sanitation, plumbing, and electricity. Compared to simple shanty towns or slums, Rocinha has a better developed infrastructure and hundreds of businesses such as banks, drug stores, bus lines, cable television, including locally based channel TV ROC, and, at one time, even a McDonalds franchise, though it has since closed. These factors help classify Rocinha as a Favela Bairro, or Favela Neighborhood.

Not all people living in Rio de Janeiro are poor. Many wealthy people live close to the CBD.

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